Are you an undergraduate student at UMD interested in being a research assistant? If you are interested in applying for Summer/Fall 2020, please fill out this application and send the completed application along with an updated version of your resume and unofficial transcript to the Clinic Coordinator, Holly Liposky, at

We are passionate about psychotherapy, and part of our mission is to learn as much as we can about treatment so we can better understand what does and does not work.

The research has been approved by the Institutional Research Board, University of Maryland. For any questions or concerns, contact the IRB Office at 301-405-4512 or email

Published Research from MPCRL

Since we opened the clinic in 2008, we have trained 50 doctoral student therapists, provided low-fee psychotherapy to about 500 people from the surrounding community, and completed about 50 papers: 44 published, 4 submitted for publication, and 2 in process.

Publications Updated Feb 13, 2022

The following studies are based on data collected in the Maryland Psychotherapy Clinic and Research Lab (MPCRL) since it opened in August 2008.

  1. Hill, C. E., Chui, H., Huang, T., Jackson, J., Liu, J., Spangler, P. (2011). Hitting the wall: A case study of interpersonal changes in psychotherapy. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 11, 34-42.
  2. Hill, C. E., Gelso, C. J., Gerstenblith, J., Chui, H., Pudasaini, S., Burgard, J., Baumann, E., & Huang, T. (2013). The dreamscape of psychodynamic psychotherapy: Dreams, dreamers, dream work, consequences, and cases. Dreaming, 23, 1-45.
  3. Huang, T. C., Hill, C. E., & Gelso, C. J. (2013). Psychotherapy engagers versus non- engagers: Differences in alliance, therapist skills, client attachment. Psychotherapy Research, 23, 568-577.
  4. Hill, C. E., Gelso, C. J., Chui, H., Spangler, P., Hummel, A., Huang, T., Jackson, J., Jones, R., Palma, B., Bhatia, A., Gupta, S., Ain, S., Klingaman, B., Lim, R., Liu, J., Hui, K., Jezzi, M., & Miles, J. R. (2014). To be or not to be immediate with clients: The use and perceived effects of immediacy in psychodynamic/interpersonal psychotherapy. Psychotherapy Research, 299-315.
  5. Hill, C. E., Knox, S., Crook-Lyon, R. E., Hess, S. A., Miles, J., Spangler, P., & Pudasaini, S. (2014). Dreaming of you: Client and therapist dreams about each other during psychodynamic psychotherapy. Psychotherapy Research, 523-537.
  6. Hill, C. E., Baumann, E., Shafran, N., Gupta, S., Morrison, A., Peres Rojas, A. E., Spangler, P. T., Griffin, S., Pappa, L., &. Gelso, C. J. (2015). Is training effective? A study of counseling psychology doctoral trainees in a psychodynamic/interpersonal training clinic. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 62, 184-201.
  7. Robinson, N., Hill, C. E., & Kivlighan, D. (2015). Crying as communication in psychotherapy” The influence of client and therapist attachment and client attachment to therapist on amount and type of crying. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 62, 379-392.
  8. Pinto-Coelho, K., Hill, C. E., & Kivlighan, D. (2016). Therapist self-disclosures in a psychodynamic clinic: A mixed-methods investigation. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 29, 29-52. doi: 10.1080/09514070.2015.1072496
  9. Baumann, E. C., & Hill, C. E. (2016). Client concealment and disclosure of secrets in outpatient psychotherapy. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 29, 53-75. doi: 10.1080/09514070.2015.1023698
  10. Huang, T., & Hill, C. E. (2016). Corrective relational experiences: Corrective relational experiences in psychodynamic-interpersonal psychotherapy: Antecedents, types, consequences in relation to client attachment style. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 63, 183-197. doi 10.1037/cou0000132
  11. Kivlighan, D., Baumann, E., Hill, C. E., & Gelso, C. J. (2016). Working alliance, real relationship, session quality, and client improvement in psychodynamic psychotherapy: A longitudinal actor partner interdependence model. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 63, 149-161. doi: 10.1037/cou0000134
  12. Chui, H., Hill, C. E., Kline, K., Kuo, P., & Mohr, J. J. (2016). Are you in the mood? Therapist affect and psychotherapy process and outcome. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 63, 405-418. doi: 10.1037/cou0000155
  13. Kivlighan, D. M. Jr., Kline, K., Gelso, C. J., & Hill, C. E. (2017). Congruence and discrepancy between working alliance and real relationship: Variance decomposition and response surface analyses. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 64, 394-409. doi: 10.1037/cou0000-216
  14. Shafran, N., Kivlighan, D. M. Jr., Gelso, C. J., Bhatia, A., & Hill, C. E. (2017). Therapist immediacy: The association with working alliance, real relationship, session quality and time in psychotherapy. Psychotherapy Research, 27, 737-748. doi: 10.1080/10503307.2016.1158884
  15. Hill, C. E., & Gupta, S. (2018). The use of immediacy in supervisory relationships. In O. Tishby & H. Wiseman (Eds.), Developing the therapeutic relationship: Integrating case studies, research, and practice (pp. 289-314). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
  16. Morales, K., Keum, B. T., Kivlighan, D. E. Jr., Hill, C. E., & Gelso, C. J. (2018). Therapist effects due to client racial/ethnic status when examining linear growth for client-and therapist-rated working alliance and real relationship. Psychotherapy, 55, 9-19. doi: 10.1037/pst0000135
  17. Gupta, S., Hill, C. E., & Kivlighan, D. M. Jr. (2018). Client laughter in psychodynamic psychotherapy: Not a laughing matter. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 65, 463-473. doi: 10.1037/cou0000272
  18. Marks, E., Hill, C. E., & Kivlighan, D. M. Jr. (2019). Secrets in psychotherapy: For better or worse. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 66, 70-82. doi: 10.1037/cou0000311
  19. O’Connor, S., Kivlighan, D. M. Jr., Hill, C. E., & Gelso, C. J. (2019). Therapist-client agreement about their working alliance: Associations with attachment styles. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 66, 83-93. doi: 10.1037/cou0000303
  20. Hill, C. E., Kline, K., Aaron, A., King, S., & Kivlighan, D. M. Jr. (2019). Changes in meaning in life in psychodynamic psychotherapy. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 32, 1-17. doi: 10.1080/09515070.2017.1340260
  21. Kivlighan, D.M. Jr., Hill, C. E., Kline, K., Ross, K., Fuhrmann, A., & Sauber, L. (2019). Test of a mediation model of psychodynamic psychotherapy process and outcome: Previous client distress, psychodynamic techniques, dyadic working alliance, and current client distress. Psychotherapy Research, 29, 581-593. doi: 10.1080/10503307.2017.1420923
  22. Cuttler, E., Hill, C. E., King, S., & Kivlighan, D. M. (2019). Productive silence is golden: Predicting changes in client collaboration from process during silence and client attachment style in psychodynamic psychotherapy. Psychotherapy, 56(4), 568-576.
  23. Hill, C. E., Kline, K. V., O’Connor, S., Morales, K., Li, X., Kivlighan Jr., D. M., & Hillman, J. (2019). Silence is golden: A mixed methods investigation of silence in one case of psychodynamic psychotherapy. Psychotherapy, 56(4), 577-587.
  24. Chui, H., & Hill, C. E. (2020). Keep calm and carry on: Therapist calmness and fatigue in relation to session process. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 33, 66-78.doi: 10.1080/09515070.2018.1502160
  25. Chui, H., Palma, B., Jackson, J., & Hill, C. E. (2020). Therapist-client agreement on helpful and wished-for experiences in psychotherapy: Associations with outcome. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 67(3), 349-360.
  26. Hill, C. E., Lu., Y., Gerstenblith, J., Kline, K., Wang, J., Lu, Y, & Zhu, Xu (2020). Facilitating client collaboration and insight through interpretations and probes for insight in psychodynamic psychotherapy: A case study of one client with three successive therapists. Psychotherapy, 57(2), 263-272.
  27. Anvari, M., Hill, C. E., & Kivlighan, D. M. Jr. (2020). Therapist skills associated with client emotional expression in psychodynamic psychotherapy. Psychotherapy Research, 30(7),900-911.
  28. Li, X., Kivlighan, D. M. Jr., & Hill, C. E. (2020). Follow you or follow me: Examining responsiveness to client and responsiveness to self, using differential equations model and multilevel data disaggreagation from an interpersonal theory framework. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 67(5), 608-621.
  29. Tipton, M., & Hill, C. E. (2020). Exploratory analyses of intake sessions in psychodynamic psychotherapy: Do processes differ for engagers versus non-engagers? Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 33(4), 561-571.
  30. Shafran, N., Hill, C. E., Kline, K. V., Pinto-Coelho, K. G., Marks, E., Kanazawa, Y. & Gupta, S. (2020). Final sessions of psychodynamic psychotherapy for satisfied and unsatisfied clients who initiate the end of therapy. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 33(4), 583-5971.
  31. Hill, C. E., Kivlighan, D. M. III, Rousmaniere,T. Kivlighan D. M. Jr., Gerstenblith, J. A., & Hillman, J. W. (2020). Deliberate practice: Effects on doctoral student therapists and clients. Psychotherapy, 57(4), 587-597.
  32. Prass, M., Ewell, A., Hill, C. E., & Kivlighan, D. M. Jr (2021). Solicited and unsolicited advice-giving in psychotherapy: Is it advised? Counselling Psychology Quarterly,34(2), 253-274.
  33. Keum, B. T., Dixon, K.M., Kivlighan, D. M. Jr., Hill,C. E., & Gelso, C J. (2021). Do therapists improve in their ability to assess clients’ satisfaction? A truth and bias model. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 68(5), 608-620.
  34. Li, X., O’Connor, S., Kivlighan, D. M. Jr., & Hill, C. E. (in press). “Where is the relationship” revisited: Using actor partner interdependence modeling and common fate model in examining dyadic working alliance and session quality. Journal of Counseling Psychology,
  35. Hunt, C. A., Goodman, R. A., Hilert, A., Hurley, W., & Hill, C. E. (in press). Enhancing therapist-rated presence and session quality in psychodynamic psychotherapy: A mindfulness-based compassion interventions. Counselling Psychology Quarterly,
  36. Gerstenblith, J. A., Kline, K., Hill, C. E., & Kivlighan, D. M. Jr. (in press). Triadic effect: Associations among the supervisory working alliance, therapeutic working alliance, and therapy session evaluation. Journal of Counseling Psychology.
  37. An, M., Hillman, J., Kivlighan, D. M. Jr., and Hill, C. E. (in press). Changes in client attachment in relation to client distress: A response surface analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology.
  38. Fuhrmann, A., Hoffman, M. A., Hunt, C. A., Hill, C. E., & Kivlighan, D. M. Jr. (in press). Disclosure and nondisclosure of physical health issues in psychodynamic psychotherapy. Psychotherapy.
  39. Anvari, M., Dua, V., Lima Rosas, J., Hill, C. E., & Kivlighan, D. M. Jr. (in press). Facilitating exploration in psychodynamic psychotherapy: Therapist skills and client attachment. Journal of Counseling Psychology, . (accepted 8/5/21)
  40. Morales, K. M., Kivlighan, D. M. Jr., Hill, C. E., & Gelso, C. J. (in press). Cultural humility, working alliance, and outcome rating scale in psychodynamic psychotherapy: Between-therapist, within-therapist, and within client effects.
  41. Lu, Y., Kivlighan, D. M., Jr., Hill, C. E., & Gelso, C. J. (in press). Therapist initial attachment style, changes in attachment style during training, and client outcome in psychodynamic psychotherapy. Journal of Counseling Psychology.
  42. Dixon, K. M., Kivlighan, D. M. Jr., Hill, C. E., & Gelso, C. J. (in press). Cultural humiity, working alliance, and Outcome Rating Scale in psychodynamic psychotherapy: Between-therapist, within-therapist, and within client effects. Journal of Counseling Psychology. Advance online publication.
  43. Hill, C. E., Morales, K., Gerstenblith, J. A., Bansal, P., An, M., Rim, K., & Kivlighan, D. M. Jr. (in press). Therapist challenges in psychodynamic psychotherapy: An empirically- supported case study. Psychotherapy, accepted Dec 2, 2021
  44. Prielipper, S., Hill, C. E., & Kivlighan, D. M. Jr. (in press). Who gets to talk: Interruptive behaviors in psychodynamic psychotherapy. Psychotherapy Research,

Manuscripts Under Review

  1. Hillman, J. W., Kivlighan, D. M. Jr., & Hill, C. E. (submitted). Client attachment to therapist and psychotherapy outcome: Fostering a secure base. (JCP)
  2. Rim, K., Hill, C. E., & Kivighan, D. M. Jr. (submitted 8-20-21 JCP). Changes in meaning in life, working alliance, and outcome in psychodynamic psychotherapy: What leads to what? (R&R, Nov. 1, 2021)
  3. Liposky, H., Hill, C. E., & Kivlighan, D. M. Jr. (submitted). Advice in final sessions of psychodynamic psychotherapy: Is it advised?
  4. Freites, E., Hill, C. E., See, A., Yetter, C., Milheim, E., Williams, J., & Kivlighan, D. M. Jr. Antecedents and consequences of closed and open questions in psychodynamic psychotherapy.

Works In Progress

  1. Liposky, H., Dua, V., Pesme, M., & Kivlighan, D. M. Jr. (in preparation). The action stage in good and poor sessions of psychodynamic psychotherapy.
  2. Hill, C. E., Shaw, S., Alford, M., Bhalwani, S., Moss, S., King, S, & Kivlighan, D. M. Jr. (in preparation). Attachment-related behaviors across time in psychodynamic psychotherapy: Laughter, crying, silence, requests, collaboration.

Financial support for the MPCRL has been provided by:

  1. The Department of Psychology
  2. The Society for Counseling Psychology
  3. The DreamScience Foundation of the International Asssociation for the Study of Dreams
  4. The Fund for Psychoanalytic Research of the American Psychoanalytic Association
  5. Bruce and Barbara Fretz
  6. The Norine Johnson Research Award from Division 29 (Psychotherapy) of the American Psychological Association